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College student psychobiography essays persuasive essay outline with rebuttal

College student psychobiography essays

Other officials of the National party played the role of ministers of Energy, Agriculture, Environment, and Minerals. Other positions of the Cabinet were taken by the ACN members. He met with senior officials of the apartheid regime and they put emphasis on reconciliation and forgiveness.

He made an official statement that people who are courageous do display it by forgiving those who do wrong against them. He advocated for peace and advised the South African people to bury the past and put behind all the hard times they had gone through in preparation to move on with their lives.

Nelson Mandela had a good neuroticism mechanism, a fifth trait of the model. This was seen the period he run and oversaw the Truth and Reconciliation Commission information in order to investigate crimes that were committed under the apartheid period by the ANC and the government. He appointed Desmond Tutu to chair the commission. The commission granted amnesties to individuals in order to obtain testimonies of crimes committed on the apartheid era in order to prevent situations of martyrs.

The administration of Mandela involved a country with a big disparity in services and wealth between the black and white communities. A certain portion of the population lacked adequate sanitation, electricity, clean water supplies, education, and employment. It was estimated that under half of the total population in South Africa lived under the poverty line.

This was a period that was so challenging to Mandela because the government financial reserves were almost depleted. A fifth of the overall national budget had been spend on debt repayment , scaling back the extent of the Reconstruction and Development programme that was earlier promised to the people of South Africa Mandela, His government, under his influence then adopted liberal economic policies which were designed to encourage and promote foreign investment.

The government adhered to the consensus of Washington, an advice from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Mandela was greatly involved in the foreign affairs of the country. Following the example of his country, South Africa, he advised and encouraged other nations to amicably resolve conflicts through reconciliation and diplomacy Mandela, He employed the method of using a soft diplomatic approach in the eradication of the military of Sani Abacha in Nigeria.

He got an appointment to be the chairman of the South African Development Community. From this association, he was able to initiate negotiations to end the war of First Congo in Zaire, even though the mission was unsuccessful. He made an order to his troops to enter Lesotho in September , a move to protect the problematic government of the Prime Minister of Lesotho. This is a situation that arose after a disputed election had been conducted in the country that prompted uprisings of the opposition.

He was appointed the Secretary- General of the famous Non-aligned movement in September This movement held their annual general conference in Durban. He took advantage of these events to strengthen international connections and relations forming strong bonds with other Nations Mandela, He also talked to the Israeli government and urged them to initiate negotiations in order to abolish the conflict of Israeli and Palestine, and Pakistan and India to negotiate over the Kashmir conflict in order for peace to reign over the Nations across the world.

Nelson Mandela is remembered as a prominent African leader who sacrificed a lot to save his country. He is remembered as a major Icon in the African societies for his efforts to make peace across the world and the kind of influence he has on other African leaders. Mandela, N. Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Little, Brown. Kavoussi, L. Comparison of robotic versus human laparoscopic camera control.

Journal of Urology. Release of vasoactive substances during cardiopulmonary bypass. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. We accept sample papers from students via the submission form. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it. Just fill out the removal request form with all necessary details, such as page location and some verification of you being a true owner. Please note that we cannot guarantee that unsubstantiated claims will be satisfied.

Note: this sample is kindly provided by a student like you, use it only as a guidance. ID Password recovery email has been sent to email email. Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. References Mandela, N. Social Issues. The World. United States. Accessed 23 July March Accessed July 23, Retrieved July 23, Free Essay Examples - WowEssays. Published Mar 28, Share with friends using:.

Removal Request. Finished papers: This paper is created by writer with ID If you want your paper to be: Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate Original, fresh, based on current data Eloquently written and immaculately formatted. Hire this Writer.

Deadline 3 hours 6 hours 12 hours 24 hours 2 days 3 days 7 days 14 days 20 days. Submit your old papers to our essay database and help fellow students to learn from example. This is your chance to pay it forward! Submit Your Paper. Can't find a free sample that matches your requirements?

Our services. Related Essays. Education and The digital Divide Presentation Example. Thomas Aquinas Essay Sample. Case Study On Malaysian Economy. They are also able to student essays constitute new relationships involving virtual selves in essays 22 , a cyber and global world.

Seldom has a technology so affected the identities and social relationships of its users. Studies Pool, ; Aronson, have shown that the critical lens , introduction of college student essays telephones had similar consequences on discursive practices as well as on the notion of the self. Mobile phones intrude into lens , and expand their users' private worlds.

How this private world is related to college psychobiography the broader public world has never been sufficiently analyzed in best nursing essay , the Philippine context. However, research in the West has shown that cellphones radically affect and even alter the relationships between private and public Persson, ; Plant, Since much of college student psychobiography essays modern life depends on the clear separation of the private from the public, their possible conflation or transgression can lead to radical change.

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The commission granted amnesties to individuals in order to obtain testimonies of crimes committed on the apartheid era in order to prevent situations of martyrs. The administration of Mandela involved a country with a big disparity in services and wealth between the black and white communities. A certain portion of the population lacked adequate sanitation, electricity, clean water supplies, education, and employment.

It was estimated that under half of the total population in South Africa lived under the poverty line. This was a period that was so challenging to Mandela because the government financial reserves were almost depleted. A fifth of the overall national budget had been spend on debt repayment , scaling back the extent of the Reconstruction and Development programme that was earlier promised to the people of South Africa Mandela, His government, under his influence then adopted liberal economic policies which were designed to encourage and promote foreign investment.

The government adhered to the consensus of Washington, an advice from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Mandela was greatly involved in the foreign affairs of the country. Following the example of his country, South Africa, he advised and encouraged other nations to amicably resolve conflicts through reconciliation and diplomacy Mandela, He employed the method of using a soft diplomatic approach in the eradication of the military of Sani Abacha in Nigeria.

He got an appointment to be the chairman of the South African Development Community. From this association, he was able to initiate negotiations to end the war of First Congo in Zaire, even though the mission was unsuccessful. He made an order to his troops to enter Lesotho in September , a move to protect the problematic government of the Prime Minister of Lesotho.

This is a situation that arose after a disputed election had been conducted in the country that prompted uprisings of the opposition. He was appointed the Secretary- General of the famous Non-aligned movement in September This movement held their annual general conference in Durban.

He took advantage of these events to strengthen international connections and relations forming strong bonds with other Nations Mandela, He also talked to the Israeli government and urged them to initiate negotiations in order to abolish the conflict of Israeli and Palestine, and Pakistan and India to negotiate over the Kashmir conflict in order for peace to reign over the Nations across the world. Nelson Mandela is remembered as a prominent African leader who sacrificed a lot to save his country.

He is remembered as a major Icon in the African societies for his efforts to make peace across the world and the kind of influence he has on other African leaders. Mandela, N. Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Little, Brown. Kavoussi, L. Comparison of robotic versus human laparoscopic camera control. Journal of Urology. Release of vasoactive substances during cardiopulmonary bypass.

Annals of Thoracic Surgery. We accept sample papers from students via the submission form. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it. Just fill out the removal request form with all necessary details, such as page location and some verification of you being a true owner. Please note that we cannot guarantee that unsubstantiated claims will be satisfied.

Note: this sample is kindly provided by a student like you, use it only as a guidance. ID Password recovery email has been sent to email email. Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. References Mandela, N. Social Issues. The World. United States. Accessed 23 July March Accessed July 23, Retrieved July 23, Free Essay Examples - WowEssays.

Published Mar 28, Share with friends using:. Removal Request. Finished papers: This paper is created by writer with ID If you want your paper to be: Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate Original, fresh, based on current data Eloquently written and immaculately formatted. Hire this Writer. Deadline 3 hours 6 hours 12 hours 24 hours 2 days 3 days 7 days 14 days 20 days.

Submit your old papers to our essay database and help fellow students to learn from example. This is your chance to pay it forward! Submit Your Paper. Can't find a free sample that matches your requirements? Our services. Related Essays. Education and The digital Divide Presentation Example. Thomas Aquinas Essay Sample. Case Study On Malaysian Economy.

Accounting Analysis Presentation Example. Insider Threats Dissertations Example. Business Case Studies Examples. Types of College Essays. Custom Writing. Premium Database. Email Please enter a valid email. Forgot password? On being marched back into the office, the young man is charles and a carol , asked by college student essays a TV journalist why he tried to essays 22 escape.

College Psychobiography! He replies in Tagalog: "I wasn't trying to run away. I was only going to buy a cellphone! Cellphones enable their users to maintain and reproduce existing social relationships in expanded spatio-temporal contexts.

They are also able to student essays constitute new relationships involving virtual selves in essays 22 , a cyber and global world. Seldom has a technology so affected the identities and social relationships of its users. Studies Pool, ; Aronson, have shown that the critical lens , introduction of college student essays telephones had similar consequences on discursive practices as well as on the notion of the self.

Mobile phones intrude into lens , and expand their users' private worlds. How this private world is related to college psychobiography the broader public world has never been sufficiently analyzed in best nursing essay , the Philippine context.

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Kroner confirmed in particular that Forster had examined Hitler and that he had diagnosed him with "hysteria". Thus, he may have tried to accelerate his visa process to the US by making himself irreplaceable. Given the obvious exaggerations and distortions in his narrative and the tremendous pressure he was under, he may serve as a witness for a number of things — but certainly not for such a crucial aspect of history as the one in question here.

In , the Austrian physician and writer Ernst Weiss , who lived in France in exile, wrote a novel, Ich, der Augenzeuge "I, the eye witness" , a fictional autobiography of a doctor who cured a "hysterical" soldier A. The plot is set in a Reichswehr hospital at the end of Since his knowledge could be dangerous to the Nazis, the fictional physician is placed in a concentration camp in and released only after he surrenders the medical records.

Ernst Weiss, the author, committed suicide after the entry of German troops in Paris. He was Jewish and had feared deportation. His novel was published in Weiss's knowledge of Hitler's hospital stay was believed to have come from the contemporary biographical literature. Starting with the assumptions of the intelligence report and following Weiss' novel, a series of researchers and authors have, consecutively, developed suspicions about a possible involvement of Forster in a supposedly securely established hypnotherapy.

Critical comments on these speculations appeared early on. But as psychiatric historian Jan Armbruster University of Greifswald judged, they were not sufficiently convincing, such as in the case of journalist Ottmar Katz, author of a biography of Hitler's personal physician, Theodor Morell Furthermore, Armbruster's work offers the to date most comprehensive critique of the methodological weaknesses of many Hitler pathographies.

One of the few authors that stated Hitler showed signs of hysteria without using the Pasewalk episode and Hitler's alleged treatment by Forster as main evidence, was the American psychoanalyst Walter C. They came to the final judgment that Hitler was "a hysterical at the edge of schizophrenia". The study was for a long time held under lock and key and published in under the title The Mind of Adolf Hitler. Already in his lifetime, many elements in Hitler's personal beliefs and conduct were classified by psychiatrists as signs of psychosis or schizophrenia , for example, his faith that he was chosen by fate to liberate the German people from their supposed most dangerous threat, the Jews.

One of the first who credited Hitler with the classic symptoms of schizophrenia was the Canadian psychiatrist W. In , he argued in an essay that Hitler was suffering from hallucinations , hearing voices , paranoia and megalomania. Vernon wrote that Hitler's personality structure — although overall within the range of normal — should be described as leaning towards the paranoid type. One year later, Henry Murray, a psychologist at Harvard University , developed these views even further.

Like Walter C. He came to the conclusion that Hitler, next to hysterical signs, showed all the classic symptoms of schizophrenia: hypersensitivity , panic attacks , irrational jealousy, paranoia, omnipotence fantasies, delusions of grandeur, belief in a messianic mission, and extreme paranoia. He considered him as perched between hysteria and schizophrenia, but stressed that Hitler possessed considerable control over his pathological tendencies and that he deliberately used them in order to stir up nationalist sentiments among the Germans and their hatred of alleged persecutors.

Like Langer, Murray thought it likely that Hitler eventually would lose faith in himself and in his "destiny", and then commit suicide. The attempt to prove that Hitler had a fully developed psychosis in a clinical sense has only occasionally been made. Treher explains that both Rudolf Steiner whose anthroposophy he attributes to mental illness and Hitler suffered from schizophrenia.

Treher finds that Hitler's megalomania and paranoia are quite striking. In , German-American clinical psychologist Edleff H. Schwaab published his psychobiography Hitler's Mind in which he states that Hitler's imagination — particularly his obsession with the supposed threat posed by the Jews — must be described as the outcome of a paranoia. The cause for this disorder Schwaab suspects to be rooted in a traumatic childhood that was dominated by a depressive mother and a tyrannical father.

The book Hitler — Karriere eines Wahns is the result from a joint effort of the psychiatrist Paul Matussek, the media theorist Peter Matussek, and the sociologist Jan Marbach, to overcome the tradition of one-dimensional psychiatric pathography and to seek an interdisciplinary approach instead, taking into account socio-historical dimensions. The investigation is focused not so much on Hitler's personal psychopathology, but rather on a description of the "interaction" between individual and collective factors that accounted for the overall dynamics of the Hitler madness.

The book specifies the interplay between Hitler's leader role which was charged with psychotic symptoms on the one hand, and the fascination that this role invoked in his followers on the other hand. The authors conclude that the Nazi crimes had indeed been an expression of madness, but of a madness which was so strongly accepted by the public that the psychotic Hitler and his followers were factually stabilizing each other in their "mad" worldview.

In terms of methodology, the most elaborate psychological assessment of Hitler was undertaken in by a research team at the University of Colorado. This study differed from all earlier works by its open, exploratory approach. The team tested systematically which mental disorders Hitler's behavior may or may not have been indicating. It was the first Hitler pathography that was consistently empirical. Hitler's alleged psychotic symptoms have repeatedly been attributed to possible organic causes.

In the late s, Ellen Gibbels University of Cologne attributed the limb trembling in Hitler's later years to Parkinson's disease , a widely held consensus in the research community. Hayden links the general paresis from which Hitler in her opinion suffered since , to the mental decline in the last years of his life, especially to his "paranoid temper tantrums".

Given the inhumanity of his crimes, Hitler was early on linked with " psychopathy ", a severe personality disorder whose main symptoms are a great or complete lack of empathy , social responsibility and conscience. The biologically determined concept still plays a role in the psychiatric forensic science , but it is no longer found in the modern medical classification systems DSM-IV and ICD Today, corresponding clinical pictures are mostly classified as signs of an antisocial personality disorder.

However, the symptomatology is rare, and unlike in popular discourse, where the classification of Hitler as a "psychopath" is commonplace, [71] psychiatrists have only occasionally endeavored to associate him with psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder. Early on, some Hitler pathographies took not only psychological, but also historical and sociological aspects into account.

This interdisciplinary approach had been developed by the psychiatrist Wilhelm Lange-Eichbaum back in He came to the conclusion that all of these men had an abundance of traits that must by classified as "psychopathic" such as the tendency to act out impulses or to project their own hostile impulses onto other people or groups. In , the interdisciplinary team Desmond Henry, Dick Geary and Peter Tyrer published an essay in which they expressed their common view that Hitler had antisocial personality disorder as defined in ICD Tyrer, a psychiatrist, was convinced that Hitler furthermore showed signs of paranoia and of histrionic personality disorder.

While psychiatrically oriented authors, when dealing with Hitler, were primarily endeavoring to diagnose him with a specific clinical disorder, some of their colleagues who follow a depth psychological doctrine as the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud , were first and foremost interested in explaining his monstrously destructive behavior.

In accordance to these doctrines, they assumed that Hitler's behavior and the development of his character were propelled by unconscious processes that were rooted in his earliest years. Pathographies that are inspired by depth psychology, typically attempt to reconstruct the scenario of Hitler's childhood and youth. Occasionally, authors such as Gerhard Vinnai started out with a depth psychological analysis, but then advanced far beyond the initial approach.

Fromm's goal was to determine the causes of human violence. He took his knowledge of the person of Hitler from several sources such as the memoir of Hitler's boyhood friend August Kubizek , Werner Maser 's Hitler-biography , and, most important, a paper by Bradley F. Smith about Hitler's childhood and youth Fromm's pathography follows largely Sigmund Freud's concept of psychoanalysis and states that Hitler was an immature, self-centered dreamer who did not overcome his childish narcissism; as a result of his lack of adaptation to reality he was exposed to humiliations which he tried to overcome by means of lust-ridden destructiveness " necrophilia ".

The evidence of this desire to destroy — including the so-called Nero Decree — was so outrageous that one must assume that Hitler had not only acted destructively, but was driven by a "destructive character". In , the German psychoanalyst and family therapist Helm Stierlin published his book Adolf Hitler.

Familienperspektiven , in which he raised the question of the psychological and motivational bases for Hitler's aggression and passion for destruction, similarly to Fromm. His study focuses heavily on Hitler's relationship to his mother, Klara. Stierlin felt that Hitler's mother had frustrated hopes for herself that she strongly delegated to her son, even though for him, too, they were impossible to satisfy.

She wrote that the family setting in which Hitler grew up was not only dominated by an authoritarian and often brutal father, Alois Hitler , but could be characterized as "prototype of a totalitarian regime". She wrote that Hitler's hate-ridden and destructive personality, that later made millions of people suffer, emerged under the humiliating and degrading treatment and the beating that he received from his father as a child.

Miller believes that the mother, whose first three children died at an early age, was barely capable of fostering a warm relationship to her son. She posits that Hitler early on identified with his tyrannical father, and later transferred the trauma of his parental home onto Germany; his contemporaries followed him willingly because they had experienced a childhood that was very similar.

On examination of his family background, his childhood and youth and of his behavior as an adult, as a politician and ruler, they found many clues that Hitler was in line both with the symptoms of a narcissistic personality disorder and of a borderline personality disorder see also below.

Bromberg and Small's work has been criticized for the unreliable sources that it is based on, and for its speculative treatment of Hitler's presumed homosexuality. The opinion that Hitler had narcissistic personality disorder was not new; Alfred Sleigh had already represented it in Like Fromm, Bromberg and Small, they were particularly interested in Hitler's narcissism, which they tried to trace by a detailed interpretation of Hitler's alleged sexual practices and constipation problems.

The psychotherapist George Victor had special interest in Hitler's antisemitism. In his book Hitler: The Pathology of Evil , he assumed that Hitler was not only obsessed with hatred of Jews, but with self-hatred, too, and that he suffered from serious borderline personality disorder.

Victor found that all these problems had their origin in the abuse that he experienced as a child by his father — who, as he believed, was of Jewish descent. Although it is generally undisputed that Hitler had formative experiences as a frontline soldier in World War I, only in the early s did psychologists come up with the consideration that at least some of his psychopathology may be attributed to war trauma. In , Theodore Dorpat, a resident psychiatrist in Seattle , published his book Wounded Monster in which he credited Hitler with complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

He assumed that Hitler not only experienced war trauma, but — due to physical and mental abuse by Hitler's father and the parental failure of his depressed mother — chronic childhood trauma, as well. Dorpat is convinced that Hitler showed signs of this disturbance at the age of According to Dorpat, many of Hitler's personality traits — such as his volatility, his malice, the sadomasochistic nature of his relationships, his human indifference and his avoidance of shame — can be traced back to trauma.

In the same year, the above-mentioned German psychologist Manfred Koch-Hillebrecht had come forward with the assumption that Hitler had posttraumatic stress disorder from his war experiences. In the subsequent year, the social psychologist Gerhard Vinnai University of Bremen , came to similar conclusions. When writing his work Hitler — Scheitern und Vernichtungswut ; "Hitler — Failing and rage of destruction" , Vinnai had a psychoanalytic point of depart; he first subjected Hitler's book Mein Kampf a depth psychological interpretation and tried to reconstruct how Hitler had processed his experiences in World War I against the background of his childhood and youth.

But similar to Dorpat, Vinnai explains the destructive potential in Hitler's psyche not so much as a result of early childhood experiences, but rather due to trauma that Hitler had suffered as a soldier in World War I. Not only Hitler, but a substantial part of the German population was affected by such war trauma.

Vinnai then leaves the psychoanalytical discourse and comments on social psychological questions, such as how Hitler's political world view could have emerged from his trauma and how this could appeal to large numbers of people. In , the above mentionened authors Coolidge, Davis, and Segal, too, assumed that Hitler suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder. Hitler regularly consumed methamphetamine , barbiturates , amphetamine , opiates and cocaine. Helena Barop, who reviewed the book in Die Zeit , wrote that Ohler's account is not based on solid research.

Hypotheses like the ones that Hitler's personality and behavior pointed to a personality disorder, to a posttraumatic stress disorder or to schizophrenia have not been undisputed, but they have repeatedly found endorsement from fellow psychiatrists. This does not apply to the following Hitler-pathographies whose authors are largely left alone with their diagnoses. In a published essay, the psychiatrists Colin Martindale , Nancy Hasenfus, and Dwight Hines University of Maine suggested that Hitler had suffered from a sub-function of the left hemisphere of the brain.

They referred to the tremor of his left limbs, his tendency for leftward eye movements and the alleged missing of the left testicle. They believed that Hitler's behavior was dominated by his right cerebral hemisphere, a situation that resulted in symptoms such as a tendency to the irrational, auditory hallucinations , and uncontrolled outbursts. Martindale, Hasenfus and Hines even suspected that the dominance of the right hemisphere contributed to the two basic elements of Hitler's political ideology: antisemitism and Lebensraum ideology.

Robert G. Waite , a psychohistorian at Williams College , worked towards an interdisciplinary exploration of Nazism from , combining historiographical and psychoanalytic methods. In , he published his study The Psychopathic God in which he took the view that Hitler's career can not be understood without considering his pathological personality. Waite assumed that Hitler suffered from schizotypal personality disorder , a condition that at that time was contained in the definition of "borderline personality disorder".

The term received its present meaning only at the end of the s; until then, "borderline personality disorder" referred to a broader set of disorders in the border area of neurosis and schizophrenia, for which Gregory Zilboorg had also coined the term "ambulatory schizophrenia".

Rappaport, who already in had called Hitler an "ambulatory schizophrenic". The personality psychologist John D. Mayer University of New Hampshire published an essay in in which he suggested an independent psychiatric category for destructive personalities like Hitler: A dangerous leader disorder DLD. Mayer identified three groups of symptomatic behavioral singularities: 1. Mayer compared Hitler to Stalin and Saddam Hussein ; the stated aim of this proposition of a psychiatric categorization was to provide the international community with a diagnostic instrument which would make it easier to recognize dangerous leader personalities in mutual consensus and to take action against them.

Based on known Hitler biographies, they developed the hypothesis that Hitler — just like Napoleon Bonaparte and Stalin — had bipolar disorder , which drove him to enter politics and become a dictator. Michael Fitzgerald , a professor of child and adolescent psychiatry , published a cornucopia of pathographies of outstanding historical personalities, mostly stating that they had Asperger syndrome , which is on the autism spectrum.

In his published anthology Autism and creativity , he classified Hitler as an "autistic psychopath". Autistic psychopathy is a term that the Austrian physician Hans Asperger had coined in in order to label the clinical picture that was later named after him: Asperger syndrome , which has nothing to do with psychopathy in the sense of an antisocial personality disorder. Fitzgerald appraised many of Hitler's publicly known traits as autistic , particularly his various obsessions , his lifeless gaze, his social awkwardness, his lack of personal friendships, and his tendency toward monologue-like speeches, which, according to Fitzgerald, resulted from an inability to have real conversations.

Pathographies are by definition works on personalities which the author believes to be mentally disturbed. Psychiatrists deal with mental illness and usually write no specialist publications on those they consider to be mentally healthy. Exceptions occur at most within professional discourses in which individual authors confront the positions of colleagues, who, in the opinion of the former, are at fault to classify a certain personality as mentally ill. As a result, works that advance the view that a particular personality was mentally healthy, are naturally underrepresented in the overall corpus of pathographic literature.

This applies to the psychopathography of Adolf Hitler, too. Some authors have described Hitler as a cynical manipulator or a fanatic , but denied that he was seriously mentally disturbed; among them are the British historians Ian Kershaw , Hugh Trevor-Roper , Alan Bullock , and A. Walters wrote in "Much of the debate about Hitler's long-term mental health is probably questionable, because even if he had suffered from significant psychiatric problems, he attained the supreme power in Germany rather in spite of these difficulties than through them.

The psychoanalyst and developmental psychologist Erik Erikson included a chapter about Adolf Hitler in his book, Childhood and Society. Erikson referred to Hitler as an "histrionic and hysterical adventurer" and believed there was evidence of an undissolved Oedipus complex in his self-portrayals. Nonetheless, he believed that Hitler was such an actor that his self-expression could not be measured with conventional diagnostic tools. Although Hitler had possibly been showing certain psychopathology, he dealt with this in an extremely controlled fashion and utilized it purposefully.

Terry Brink, a student of Alfred Adler , published an essay The case of Hitler in which he, similar to the above-mentioned authors, concluded that after a conscientious evaluation of all records there is not sufficient evidence that Hitler had a mental disorder. Many of Hitler's behaviors must be understood as attempts to overcome a difficult childhood. However, many of the documents and statements that have been quoted in order to prove a mental illness were to be considered untrustworthy.

Too strong consideration has been given, for example, to Allied propaganda and to fabrications of people who have tried to distance themselves from Hitler for personal reasons. One of the most comprehensive Hitler pathographies comes from the neurologist and psychiatrist Frederick Redlich. In his published work Hitler: Diagnosis of a Destructive Prophet , on which he worked for 13 years, Redlich came to believe that Hitler had indeed shown enough paranoia and defense mechanisms in order to "fill a psychiatric textbook with it", but that he was probably not mentally disturbed.

Hitler's paranoid delusions "could be seen as symptoms of a mental disorder, but the largest part of the personality worked normal. After two years of study — of the diaries of Theodor Morell among others —, the physician Hans-Joachim Neumann and the historian Henrik Eberle published in their joint book War Hitler krank? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypothesis that Adolf Hitler suffered from mental illness. The New York Times. Wege und Probleme der Psychiatrischen Pathographie.

Aachen: Karin Fischer. Retrieved June 14, Ein Psychiater berichtet. ISBN Faschismus und Psychoanalyse. Forschungsstand und Forschungsperspektiven. In: Bedrich Loewenstein Editor. Geschichte und Psychologie. Hitlers Geheimnis: Das Doppelleben eines Diktators. Berlin, Germany: Fest. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved In: Die Zeit , No. Eichmann in Jerusalem 15 ed. The remarks were the subject of a swift denunciatory resolution of the Quebec National Assembly.

Within Canada, people such as Howard Galganov , a former radio personality, and the journalist Diane Francis have gained a reputation for their anti-Quebec opinions. NDP candidate Dayleen Van Ryswyk made comments on a local website blog in "Seems the only group of people universally hated around the world other than the Americans are the French and French-Canadians.

The bigots are the French and not us. Unfavourable depictions of Quebec have been made in books such as Bilingual Today, French Tomorrow , as well as political cartoons. There isn't a single material or spiritual advantage to it which can't be had, in an even better form, on the English side of Montreal. She published a book, The Traitor and the Jew based on that work, which examined the articles and beliefs of Lionel Groulx , an important intellectual in the history of French-Canadian Catholicism and nationalism.

Groulx is a revered figure to many French Quebecers, who consider him a father of Quebec nationalism, although his works are seldom read today. In order to separate his political and literary activities from his academic work, Groulx was known to write journalism and novels under numerous pseudonyms.

In her book, Delisle claimed that Groulx, under the pseudonym Jacques Brassier, had written in in L'Action nationale :. Within six months or a year, the Jewish problem could be resolved, not only in Montreal but from one end of the province of Quebec to the other. There would be no more Jews here other than those who could survive by living off one another. The Quebec Premier, Jacques Parizeau, and numerous other commentators labelled her book as "Quebec bashing".

Issues of methodology had been raised initially by some of the professors of her thesis committee, two of whom thought the identified problems had not been corrected. The issue also included a profile of Groulx, and authors of both articles acknowledged Groulx's antisemitism and the generally favourable attitude of the Roman Catholic church towards fascist doctrine during the s.

Pierre Lemieux , an economist and author wrote: "The magazine's attack is much weakened by Claude Ryan , editor of Le Devoir in the s, declaring that he has changed his mind and come close to Delisle's interpretation after reading her book. Scott documentary about Delisle's book. Outraged at what both Scott and Delisle called an absolute falsehood, they asked Canal D to rebroadcast the documentary because it was introduced in a way they considered to be defamatory and inaccurate.

The well-known Montreal author Mordecai Richler wrote essays in which he decried what he perceived as racism , tribalism , provincialism, and anti-semitism among nationalist politicians in French-speaking Quebec, notably in a article in The New Yorker and his book Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! His negative portrayal of some Quebec government policies was given international coverage in the Western world , where French-speaking Quebecers were heard and read much less often than English Canadians.

Some commentators, inside and outside Quebec, think that the reaction to Richler was excessive, and sometimes bordered on racist. For example, in he said the Anglo residents of Sault Ste. Marie , Ontario "speak the good language"; [54] during the Winter Olympic Games he called Quebec separatists "whiners", after Bloc MPs had complained there were too many Canadian flags in the Olympic village.

He said that Jean-Luc Brassard shouldn't be the flag bearer because he was "a French guy, some skier that nobody knows about". Left-leaning politicians, French advocacy groups, and media commentators from Quebec criticized Cherry and CBC Television on numerous occasions after these statements.

In the CBC put Cherry's segment, Coach's Corner , on a 7-second tape delay to review his comments and prevent future incidents. Parizeau was said to have been especially offended, as he is the widower of Alice Poznanska , a Polish author who saw the horrors of the Third Reich first hand. Lafferty appealed, but died in As commonly seen in such cases, the details of the agreement remained confidential. As they had promised at the beginning of the case, Bouchard and Parizeau donated the settlement money to charity.

The appointment was opposed in English Canada because Levine had been a separatist, which was unrelated to his performance as a hospital administrator. His speech was reinforced by support from the union, the Quebec Liberal Party , and a resolution of the National Assembly of Quebec. In it he created a psychobiography of Lucien Bouchard, then premier of Quebec.

He described Bouchard as "mystical", and his culture as "most uncanadian". Vivian Rakoff, which has been disputed. Rakoff never met Bouchard. In his book, Martin called Bouchard "Lucien, Lucifer of our land. On September 13, , a school shooting occurred at Dawson College in Westmount, Quebec, leaving two dead, including the gunman. Three days later, the national newspaper, The Globe and Mail , published a front-page article by Jan Wong titled, "Get under the desk". A number of Quebec journalists denounced Wong's article.

On September 21, , The Globe and Mail published an editorial on the affair. Calling the controversy a "small uproar", it defended the right of the journalist to question such phenomena, the "need to ask hard questions and explore uncomfortable avenues", saying that he "merely wondered" whether the marginalization and alienation of the three shooters could be associated with the murders. On March 18, Boisclair said during a press briefing, "I have closed this file.

I understand that there is a difference between French and English in the use of this expression, and that the English is more pejorative, but I am not in linguistics- I am in politics. It recorded anti-Quebec sentiment expressed by Western Canadians and by English-speaking media at large. The movie's trailer, called "No More Quebec", was viewed a hundred thousand times in the space of 24 hours, and was then taken up by traditional and social media.

In the documentary, Quebeckers are referred to as "thieves", "whiners" and "vermin". They complain and moan and damage our economy. They conspire and combine to create a dream and French ethnocentric state. They rewrite history. They create all parts of claims for recent injustices. They irritate English Canadians to help their cause. They are, in a word, despicable. It is now criminal offense for companies not to give French equal billing with English.

It's doubled the paperwork load, driven up the cost of doing business and forced businesses out of the province. Quebec's narrative of uni-lingualism, uni-culturalism and uni-ethnic absolutism is a throwback to tribalism that flourishes in parts of Africa and the Middle East.

Tribalism in Quebec is no different than tribalism practiced anywhere else in the world. It is a closed society, one language, one religion, one race, one tribe that encourages fear of the other, enabling it to make restrictive laws to the point that it incites hatred. Privately, English Canadians are far less defensive. They grumble about Quebec's dark history of anti-Semitism, religious bigotry and pro-fascist sentiment, facts which are rarely included in otherwise self-flagellating official narratives of Canadian history.

They complain about the exaggerated deference the province gets from Ottawa as a "distinct society" and "nation-within-a-nation," and its various French-supremacist language and assimilation laws, which they blame for creating a place that's inhospitable, arrogant and, yes, noticeably more racist than the Canadian norm.

And now, they have good reason to observe that the province seems to produce an awful lot of lunatics prone to public massacres, who often explicitly justify their violence with arguments of dissatisfaction towards Quebec's unique culture. Quebec-bashing has been denounced as dishonest, [92] false, [92] defamatory [93] prejudiced, [92] [94] racist, [4] [65] [95] [96] colonialist , [4] [97] or hate speech [98] by many people of all origins [99] and political colours [6] in Quebec.

Harper's remarks the Montreal newspaper La Presse had dismissed accusations that the remarks were anti-Quebec. Quebec nationalists like to remind English-speaking Canada how antisemitic it was. Jews, who as a national minority, faced persecution across Canada and were subject to quotas at McGill University. Journalist Normand Lester wrote three polemic volumes of The Black Book of English Canada in which Quebec bashing is denounced and acts of discrimination, racism and intolerance towards people who were not white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are itemized.

Although some facts cited are not widely known about in French Canada, they are in English Canada. The book offered a counterpoint by chronicling the racist and anti-semitic history of English Canada. The author argued that Quebec was never more anti-semitic than English Canada. Most notably, it underlined the fervent federalist opinions of fascist Adrien Arcand and revealed for the first time that his former fascist National Social Christian Party was funded by Prime Minister of Canada R.

Bennett and his Conservative Party see R. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett Controversy. He argued that the fascist party was so marginal that it would never have been viable, had it not been for the funding. In Guy Bouthillier , then president of the SSJB, lamenting the phenomenon, pointed out that the "right to good reputation" was a recognized right in the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms , inspired by the international human rights declations of the post-war era.

While examples of anti-Quebec coverage in English Canada are recognized by a number of French-speaking people in Quebec, whether this represents a wide phenomenon and an opinion held by many people in English Canada is subject to debate. She also mentioned Edward Greenspon , who, however, as editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail , ended up defending an alleged instance of Quebec bashing in , Globe and Mail columnist Jan Wong's " Get under the desk ".

Graham Fraser , an English Canadian journalist noted for his sympathy for Quebec, has tempered both sides. But I do not think these anti-francophone prejudices dominate the Canadian culture. Maryse Potvin has attributed the debate over Quebec-bashing to "the obsession with national identity which, on the one side, is articulated around the reinforcement of the federal state, the Charter, and a mythified version of the Canadian multicultural project, and which, on the other side, is based on a logic of ideological victimization and crystallization of the political project.

Other English-speaking journalists, such as Ray Conlogue, Peter Scowen or Graham Fraser, have earned notable reputations for a more fair and sympathetic views of Quebec, in both sovereigntist and federalist circles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Discrimination General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Woke.

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But a lot of impediments. Hi, thanks for your article. I am currently taking a personality psychology class and I have to do a Psychobiography. I want to do it on either Bob Marley or Usain Bolt but I am still unclear as to how to structure or organize it. Can you point me to any Psychobiographical articles or papers not books that you may know if so I can take a look and get a better idea as to how I should structure my paper.

Thanks in advance. Good afternoon. Thank goodness for Kindle, as it is out of print, according to Amazon. Thank you. I can send u some chapters on method. Email me. Thanks for the article. Could you possibly point me in the right direction? Or email me any articles you have? I am a junior at Evergreen State College. I have embarked on a journey of a psycho-autobiography.

Do you have any pointers specific to this type of paper? I read your blog post and found it very helpful. I am 34 and my life has been colorful. I was thinking about looking at my life through the lens of the humanistic approach? What do you think? I would appreciate any feedback you have. This was very helpful in preparation of my psychobiography I must write for a personality class. I appreciate your help and your willingness to help so many others who came before me!

Dear William, I would like to purchase your book for my research, could you please write me a small note to: info ravenmusic. Thank you so much! Martin Romberg. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.

Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content What is psychobiography? People are not diagnoses. A diagnosis is a name—a label—not a true explanation. I talk a lot about this subject in chapter one of my Handbook of Psychobiography. You can check that out for more detail.

Say a mother tells a psychiatrist, My son hears voices. Mom replies: Oh. Psychiatrist says, Because he hears voices. Psychobiography is NOT biography, although all psychobiographies make use of biographical data, obviously. In biography the aim is to tell the story of a life, to be as comprehensive as possible.

In most psychobiographies, one focuses instead on one facet of a life, a single mysterious question, such as why Elvis Presley had such difficulty performing the song Are You Lonesome Tonight? Psychobiography is primarily a way of doing psychology by focusing on single cases, single lives. Biographers do not aim to do psychology, at least not primarily.

They want, instead, to set down the record of the life. Biographers, therefore, are chiefly descriptive; psychobiographies are more explanatory, more interpretive. In childhood we develop particular patterns of response that can persist for a lifetime. Childhood can set an emotional tone or leave behind certain dynamics that become partially determinative.

BUT—childhood is not everything! It is a part of the picture, but not the whole picture. So, good psychobiographies avoid simplistic formulations such as those met with in originology. In a related vein, psychobiography is NOT a search for single causes of behavior. As Freud once said, everything we do is overdetermined, a function of a concert of reasons, not one reason operating in isolation.

One looks, therefore, for multiple causes. Take the case of van Gogh cutting off his ear again, for more on this subject, see the Runyan chapter in the Handbook of Psychobiography. Why did van Gogh do it? During the time of civil strife escalation, he was realised from prison, in After the release, he made advances to abolish apartheid by making consultations and negotiated with President F.

This was a bold move because at the back of his mind he also intended to establish multiracial elections in the year During the elections, Nelson Mandela led the ANC political party to victory and successfully became the first black president of South Africa. His autobiography was published in All these steps after a long period of prison sentence indicate that Nelson Mandela had a clean and focused conscientiousness.

An individual who has personal interest can be seen from this because he would probably give up and would not put much sacrifice to the extend Nelson Mandela did. Nelson Mandela played an international role of acting as a mediator between the United Kingdom and Libya in the bombing trial of Pan Am Flight He also oversaw the intervention of military in Lesotho. His deputy, Thabo Mbeki, succeeded him after he refused to go for a second term.

Through his activism, he gained international acclaim and is known to have received over two hundred and fifty honours. He is identified as an icon with deep respect in South Africa, referred to as Madiba, his clan name. With time, he made friends with the Indian, Jewish, and European students. Despite the friends he made, Mandela believed that Africans were supposed to be independent in their struggle for freedom and political self-determination.

Nelson Mandela exercised the third trait of extraversion. He had positive emotions, full of energy, sociability, and assertiveness. This was evident when he left for an African tour to meet politicians and supporters in Zimbabwe, Libya, Zambia, Namibia, and Algeria, and went ahead to Sweden where he accomplished his mission by reuniting with Tambo.

He was warmly welcomed by different Presidents of different countries because his visits had an inspirational impact on the countries he toured. Bush where he addressed all the Houses of Congress. He visited eight cities in the United States. This made him popular mostly among the African Americans in the United States. He toured Cuba and met with the President, Fidel Castro with whom he had admired for a long time. Nelson displayed the fourth trait of Agreeableness. He had the ability to be cooperative and compassionate.

He was not antagonistic and suspicious towards other people. This trait was seen when he led a delegation of multiracial nature, the ANC, in a preliminary negotiation affair which comprised of a government delegation of eleven African men. Eventually, the negotiations resulted to a state of emergency being lifted by the government. He thereafter spent most of his time trying to build and unite the ANC delegation.

He appeared in conference held at Johannesburg attended by one thousand six hundred delegates. He added by announcing his bold intentions to establish a strong work force for securing and protecting the majority rule.

Nelson Mandela perceived and saw reconciliation of the Nation as the basic and primary task of his leadership, and therefore, he presided over the transition period from apartheid minority age to multicultural democracy rule. He observed the severe damage that had been done in other post-colonial African countries and economies after the white elites left and worked hard to ensure South Africa would not suffer the aftermath of the damages created.

He made an effort to establish the strongest and broadest coalition in the South African cabinet in his government. Other officials of the National party played the role of ministers of Energy, Agriculture, Environment, and Minerals.

Other positions of the Cabinet were taken by the ACN members. He met with senior officials of the apartheid regime and they put emphasis on reconciliation and forgiveness. He made an official statement that people who are courageous do display it by forgiving those who do wrong against them. He advocated for peace and advised the South African people to bury the past and put behind all the hard times they had gone through in preparation to move on with their lives.

Nelson Mandela had a good neuroticism mechanism, a fifth trait of the model. This was seen the period he run and oversaw the Truth and Reconciliation Commission information in order to investigate crimes that were committed under the apartheid period by the ANC and the government. He appointed Desmond Tutu to chair the commission. The commission granted amnesties to individuals in order to obtain testimonies of crimes committed on the apartheid era in order to prevent situations of martyrs.

The administration of Mandela involved a country with a big disparity in services and wealth between the black and white communities. A certain portion of the population lacked adequate sanitation, electricity, clean water supplies, education, and employment. It was estimated that under half of the total population in South Africa lived under the poverty line. This was a period that was so challenging to Mandela because the government financial reserves were almost depleted.

A fifth of the overall national budget had been spend on debt repayment , scaling back the extent of the Reconstruction and Development programme that was earlier promised to the people of South Africa Mandela, His government, under his influence then adopted liberal economic policies which were designed to encourage and promote foreign investment.

The government adhered to the consensus of Washington, an advice from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Mandela was greatly involved in the foreign affairs of the country. Following the example of his country, South Africa, he advised and encouraged other nations to amicably resolve conflicts through reconciliation and diplomacy Mandela, He employed the method of using a soft diplomatic approach in the eradication of the military of Sani Abacha in Nigeria.

He got an appointment to be the chairman of the South African Development Community. From this association, he was able to initiate negotiations to end the war of First Congo in Zaire, even though the mission was unsuccessful. He made an order to his troops to enter Lesotho in September , a move to protect the problematic government of the Prime Minister of Lesotho. This is a situation that arose after a disputed election had been conducted in the country that prompted uprisings of the opposition.

He was appointed the Secretary- General of the famous Non-aligned movement in September This movement held their annual general conference in Durban. He took advantage of these events to strengthen international connections and relations forming strong bonds with other Nations Mandela, He also talked to the Israeli government and urged them to initiate negotiations in order to abolish the conflict of Israeli and Palestine, and Pakistan and India to negotiate over the Kashmir conflict in order for peace to reign over the Nations across the world.

Nelson Mandela is remembered as a prominent African leader who sacrificed a lot to save his country. He is remembered as a major Icon in the African societies for his efforts to make peace across the world and the kind of influence he has on other African leaders.

Mandela, N. Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Little, Brown. Kavoussi, L. Comparison of robotic versus human laparoscopic camera control. Journal of Urology. Release of vasoactive substances during cardiopulmonary bypass. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. We accept sample papers from students via the submission form. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it. Just fill out the removal request form with all necessary details, such as page location and some verification of you being a true owner.