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Caliban essay other

Caliban serves to illustrate ideas about the social hierarchy of the Renaissance world, which formulated a socially rigid — and very political — hierarchy of God, king, man, woman, beast. This order was based on the patriarchal tradition and the teachings of religious leaders, which postulate a hierarchical order for mankind based on physiological and physical characteristics. Other means of defining a place within this order were emotional stability and the ability to reason.

Based on these definitions, beasts were lower in the evolutionary scale than all humans. According to this rather rigid social hierarchy, Caliban belongs at the bottom of the Elizabethan social hierarchy, having little perceived social worth. And yet, for many critics and students, he dominates The Tempest. Prospero is really the center of the play, since the other characters relate to one another through him and because he manipulates everyone and everything that happens.

The play ends with Prospero's victory over his enemies; he has the most lines, and he speaks the epilogue. Although he has far fewer lines than several other characters, Caliban, at only lines, is often the focus of student interest, as well as that of many critics, often with an importance far greater than his actual presence in the play. Much of this interest reflects the social position of critics, scholars, and students.

Whether Caliban is a monster, whether he is a victim of colonialism, or whether he represents some other disadvantaged element of society depends almost entirely on the social and cultural constructs and interests of the reader or audience. An important part of Caliban's appeal is his ambiguity of character.

The audience learns more about Caliban's physical description from Trinculo and Stefano, who describe Caliban as less than human. Trinculo asks if the form before him is "a man or a fish? But it is not his appearance that makes Caliban monstrous in Prospero's eyes, nor was Caliban treated as a slave — at least not initially. Caliban, himself, relates that Prospero treated him well, teaching him about God when the two first met I. But it was Caliban's attack on Miranda that resulted in his enslavement and the change in Caliban's social position.

Caliban sees the attempted rape of Miranda as a natural behavior. Reproductive urges are a natural function of animals, but humans modify their desires with reason and through social constraints. Without reason to modify his impulses, Caliban's behavior aligns him with the animals. Yet, at the same time, he is clearly more than a beast. Critics make much of Caliban's name as an anagram for cannibal. However that does not mean that Shakespeare defines this character as someone who would eat people, as modern readers may assume.

Instead, the Elizabethan meaning of cannibal is better described as someone who is a savage — uncultivated, uncivilized, untamed. Caliban is more closely defined as an innocent — more like a child who is innocent of the world and its code of behavior. But Shakespeare describes this creature as an innocent — perhaps half man and half fish.

Trinculo and Stefano's descriptions are untrustworthy, since the first is frightened by the storm, and the second is drunk. What is clear is that Caliban's behavior suggests many questions about what is natural and what is unnatural. Is the attempted rape of Miranda or the plot to murder Prospero a natural behavior?

These acts represent Caliban's attempts to survive, but this is not acceptable behavior among civilized men. These are the actions of wild, untutored animals. Caliban demonstrates no sense of morality nor any ability to understand or appreciate the needs of anyone other than himself. In Caliban's self-centeredness, he is little more than an animal. He wants to indulge his desires, without control. This is what being free means to Caliban, whose cry for freedom II.

In Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poetry , the author argues that poets have a responsibility to make learning more palatable through their art. Shakespeare fulfills Sidney's requirement by using his plays to explore complex ideas and issues, and thus, he makes learning more palatable for the audience. The Tempest is not one of these works. This story realizes that it is impossible.

Comparing Shakespeare's Caliban to the African-American Caliban, immediately introduced as "poisonous slave," "savage," "hag-seed," is a character often likened to the African- American slave. The ease and matter-of-factness with which Prospero and Miranda dismiss him is painfully obvious even before he enters the scene Act 1, Scene 3. Through no fault of his own, Caliban is dehumanized by the authority of his day and dismissed by the important members of his society.

He looks much different. Caliban as Representative of Natural Man in The Tempest The Tempest presents an argument against the concept of the noble savage through the character of Caliban. Caliban is the main focus as far as the notion of "nature" and "natural man" is considered in the play. Proof of this can be found in his name--"Caliban" sounds very similar to "cannibal," and hence serves to link him with primitive, natural man.

In the first scene of the play, Caliban's character is connected with the lower objects. This shows us that Prospero must be a powerful man and that he has authority over the island and its people. What values does your character most cherish? What values does your character reject? Caliban rejects the Eurocentric values that were both imposed upon him and exploited him as a slave. Caliban rejects the Elizabethan belief of a social positioning of a rigid hierarchy that is dictated by birth.

Home Page Caliban. Free Caliban Essays and Papers. Satisfactory Essays. Page 1 of 49 - About essays. Better Essays. Caliban in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Caliban: No Change in the Chain. Best Essays. Caliban Portrayed as a Child in The Tempest.

In the original work, the portrayal of Caliban is based primarily on how he reacts to how Miranda and Prospero treat him.

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Caliban essay other Firstly, his dog was his companion and Carlson shot it. One can see how he utilizes his art, akin to modern technology, in order to suppress and subjugate. Curtsied when you have and kissed, The wild waves whist, Foot it featly here and there; And, sweet sprites, the burden bear. This is significant in that by rejecting language, Caliban is rejecting knowledge itself. The scenes of The Tempest are structured so as to emphasize the differing characterizations of Ariel and Caliban in their relationship to Prospero. Piggy also was not a very caliban essay other but he had the ideas of helping to be one cover letter examples for dancers his time on the island with the boys but is a more of a follower instead of a leader at times on the island. Either way, Caliban's meaning will no doubt continue to challenge the reader's preconceived ideas about what is monstrous, what is natural, and what is civilized in the world.
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If you're interested in Latin Am The title essay, "Caliban," is so complex and wide-ranging. If you're interested in Latin American post-colonial, cultural, Marxist, or structuralist criticisms, this is fantastic. Jul 09, Jake Cotto rated it really liked it Shelves: bread-loaf Frankly, this collection of essays made it a point to remind me that I know nothing.

Fernandez Retamar is on another level. I can definitely see myself coming back to this work, and others of his, later in my life. Oct 09, raj rated it really liked it. Really, I just read the "Caliban" and "Caliban Revisited" essays.

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Be the first to start one ». Readers also enjoyed. An early close confidant of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, he has remained a central figure in Cuba since the Revolution. Professor Joao Cesar Castro de Rocha, at the University of Manchester has described Retamar as "one of the most distinguished Latin American intellectuals of the twentieth century.

Related Articles. A Juneteenth Reading List. Because he like the natives believed that the people who came to his home were gods, which made him. This is made apparent through the character of Caliban. Caliban is a dis-figured fish-like creature that inhabits the island where the play The Tempest, takes place. Caliban is the son a witch-hag, and the only native on the island. In Caliban's first speech, he suggests that Prospero stole the island from him. Act 1, Scene 1, line. Shakespeaer's answer would have been yes.

This fact is depicted through the character of Caliban. Caliban's speech and manners, as well as his thought, all display the very basic reactions and notions of human beings. He is also controlled by a parent figure who comes in the form of Prospero.

Title The Tempest is full of many powerful people who climb over each other to get to the top. Arguments of who has the most power on the island vary and there is no one solid answer. Three people stand out the most: Ariel, Prospero, and Caliban. They all have power in different ways and it is disputed if some even have power or only give the illusion of it.

Prospero is powerful because he controls Ariel and many others. Caliban is physically. Many would say yes, because Prospero ruled the land and held the only prominent voice of government and law. Many of these themes are still relevant today. He brings to the play issues that have a humorous side but are also serious, for example the treatment of inferiors.

This also proves he is child-like in his thinking.

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Since he does not plant crops and provide the food for his family, this leaves his son Okonkwo to assume the fatherly duties. He was in fact a coward and could not bear the sight of blood. As a result, he dies in shame. Indeed, Gregor 's family has isolated him in a way that he had no contact with his family.

Not only that but the lack of communication Gregor was experiencing also contributed to his isolation. The fact that he could not talk let him no choice but to listen to everything his family was saying about him. This loneliness made him realized how unfaithful his family was. After a certain time, Gregor " would be not at all in a frame of mind to look after his family; instead, he was filled with rage at how poorly he was attended to [..

Even he himself is starting to feel worthless and lonely. Firstly, his dog was his companion and Carlson shot it. And secondly, he mostly keeps to himself and does not have any real companionship with the other men. You cannot listen or ask any questions as a ranch hand, ruining all communication. He has no one to be friends with because he cannot relate to anyone anymore since he lost his hand and can't do the same work as the others.

He quite obviously did not want that to happen because the dog was all he had. On page 45, and surrounding pages they talk about the dog would be better off dead but Candy protests as much as he can before the inevitable. Plus, he knows nothing about his cultural heritage. The second author actually evaluates Jefferson using a negative term. For example, the author evaluates that Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independent and was a leader of American Enlightenment however still owned slaves and did not free his slaves.

The second author evaluates that Jefferson only cared about theoretical interest and his grand style. Jefferson concerned that should tdispotism by owners but he not really talked about regretting for mistreatment of the…. They differ from ordinary people in the same way that the body differs from the soul. Such people are by nature slaves, and it is better for them…to be ruled by a master. Home Flashcards Create Flashcards Essays. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Sign in. Whereas Ariel greets Prospero with an affirmation of his greatness, Caliban greets him with a curse:.

Ariel is portrayed as a submissive servant, while Caliban is characterized as rebellious and spiteful. Caliban's first speech emphasizes the conflict that arises from his lack of gratitude towards his master. Prospero, having drawn Caliban away from his savagery and towards modernity, believes that Caliban owes him a debt of gratitude.

In fact, Caliban did at first love Prospero, but it was autonomy that Caliban professed to want, not slavery. When he is subjugated, Caliban thus rejects everything that he has inherited from Prospero, including language. Caliban essentially feels betrayed, and this is evident in the tone that is used to address Prospero in his first speech:. Unlike Ariel, Caliban has no future promise of freedom that will justify an attitude of deference.

His rebellious attitude is a reaction to his feeling that he is being unjustly used and subjugated. Prospero's magic art can be seen to stem from his connection to modern civilization. One can see how he utilizes his art, akin to modern technology, in order to suppress and subjugate. He is portrayed as a colonizer who exploits the innocence of his subjects to his own advantage.

Prospero uses his power over Caliban in a malicious, vengeful manner. He influences Caliban by intimidating him with threats of bodily discomforts and annoyances. Caliban dramatically emphasizes the extent of this power when explaining why he does not simply run away:.

Whereas Prospero uses his magic in order to subjugate Caliban, he uses it in order to free Ariel from the curse of Sycorax. The submissive attitude of Ariel in his relationship with Prospero stems from the debt that this engenders in him towards his master. Ariel is content to serve his master only to the extent to which it ensures his future release.

In a sense, he is repaying the debt he owes to Prospero by willingly subjugating himself to him. Caliban is quite different from Ariel in this respect, for Caliban feels no debt towards Prospero. Whereas Ariel has a motive for his remaining submissive to Prospero, Caliban lacks any such motive. Lacking any feeling of debt in his relationship to Prospero, Caliban thus develops the rebellious and accusatory attitude that characterizes him through much of the work.

One of the most significant differences in character that separates Ariel from Caliban is the way in which each uses language. Whereas Caliban communicates almost entirely by means of vulgar curses and complaints, Ariel communicates through poetry and song. It betrays a mind at ease with his environment, a mind in which creativity and wit have sufficient room to develop.

Caliban, unlike Ariel, is not of the mind to produce anything remotely similar to poetry or song. Caliban has entirely rejected language itself:. This is significant in that by rejecting language, Caliban is rejecting knowledge itself. This is not surprising, for Prospero has given Caliban the tools of communication and self-knowledge, but has failed to give him the freedom and self-responsibility with which it is necessary to enjoy them. This is language suitable to a sprite with little care, almost absurdly childish in its nursery rhyme character.

Ariel's language here is pleasant and musical, clearly the product of a clever mind, yet it possesses none of the insight and import that is characteristic of similar characters in other Shakespeare works, such as The Fool in King Lear. It is not until the second half of The Tempest that one can accurately make any judgements on the characters of Ariel and Caliban.

It is possible to view Caliban in the first half of the work as a slave who is rebelling against his oppressive master. Yet when Caliban encounters Stephano and Trinculo with their "celestial liquor," he willingly subjugates himself to them. Caliban does not ask them for his freedom, as would be expected.

Rather, he begs them to be his master, even his god. Caliban thus shows himself to be incapable of autonomy. In his relationship to Stephano, Caliban is even more pathetic than in his relationship to Prospero, for he abandons his rebellious attitude for one of hero-worship and grovelling. By putting himself in willing slavery to Stephano, who is no more than a drunkard and a buffoon, Caliban shows himself to be truly in a pathetic state.

The vicious curses that he had constantly sent to his old master Prospero are replaced by requests to lick the shoe of his new master. A drunk Caliban even attempts a poetic song for the first time, and makes a fool of himself by stumbling over his name:.

He joyously hails his new situation as "Freedom, high day," unaware that he is simply stepping into another set of chains, this time those of liquor. Caliban becomes a more sympathetic character in the second half of the work. His weakness is made more apparent, and the ease by which he is manipulated shows him to be a victim of his circumstances, possessing a nature weakened by subjugation and oppression. Although the characterization of Caliban shows him to be a more pathetic character as the play progresses, the characterization of Ariel displays quite the opposite.

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Caliban has entirely rejected language itself:. This is significant in that by rejecting language, Caliban is rejecting knowledge itself. This is not surprising, for Prospero has given Caliban the tools of communication and self-knowledge, but has failed to give him the freedom and self-responsibility with which it is necessary to enjoy them. This is language suitable to a sprite with little care, almost absurdly childish in its nursery rhyme character.

Ariel's language here is pleasant and musical, clearly the product of a clever mind, yet it possesses none of the insight and import that is characteristic of similar characters in other Shakespeare works, such as The Fool in King Lear. It is not until the second half of The Tempest that one can accurately make any judgements on the characters of Ariel and Caliban. It is possible to view Caliban in the first half of the work as a slave who is rebelling against his oppressive master.

Yet when Caliban encounters Stephano and Trinculo with their "celestial liquor," he willingly subjugates himself to them. Caliban does not ask them for his freedom, as would be expected. Rather, he begs them to be his master, even his god. Caliban thus shows himself to be incapable of autonomy. In his relationship to Stephano, Caliban is even more pathetic than in his relationship to Prospero, for he abandons his rebellious attitude for one of hero-worship and grovelling.

By putting himself in willing slavery to Stephano, who is no more than a drunkard and a buffoon, Caliban shows himself to be truly in a pathetic state. The vicious curses that he had constantly sent to his old master Prospero are replaced by requests to lick the shoe of his new master. A drunk Caliban even attempts a poetic song for the first time, and makes a fool of himself by stumbling over his name:.

He joyously hails his new situation as "Freedom, high day," unaware that he is simply stepping into another set of chains, this time those of liquor. Caliban becomes a more sympathetic character in the second half of the work. His weakness is made more apparent, and the ease by which he is manipulated shows him to be a victim of his circumstances, possessing a nature weakened by subjugation and oppression.

Although the characterization of Caliban shows him to be a more pathetic character as the play progresses, the characterization of Ariel displays quite the opposite. Ariel occupies the most important role of the play during the last two acts. It is Prospero who conceives the ideas for enchanting the shipwrecked Italians, but he can only carry them out with the aid of Ariel.

In the same way that Ariel is dependent upon Prospero for his freedom, Prospero is dependent upon Ariel for the fulfillment of his plans. This entails a significant reversal in roles. Ariel becomes the one in control, for it is his power of enchantment upon which Prospero is dependent. In his speech to Alonso, Antonio and Sebastian in Act III, Ariel condemns these three in the same type of authoritarian language which had previously been reserved only to Prospero:.

His changing use of language is evidence of a changing attitude. As Ariel comes closer to his freedom, his demeanor becomes more confident and less submissive. He is becoming more independent, and thus more strong in character. Where the second half of the work shows a Caliban increasingly destitute and pathetic, it shows an Ariel increasingly self-assertive and autonomous.

The conclusion of The Tempest shows Prospero regaining his dukedom, Ariel finding his freedom, and Caliban resigning himself once again to the authority of Prospero. Although it seems at first to be a pleasant state of affairs, a closer look reveals it to be quite the opposite.

Prospero is surely unfit to be a duke, as his overbearing and oppressive nature throughout the play attests to. It seems as if Ariel, in winning his freedom, is the only one of these characters whose state is truly better than it was at the opening of the play. This is significant in that among these characters, the distinguishing characteristic of Ariel is that he is not human.

He is therefore unrestricted by human nature, and human nature in this play is decidedly not portrayed as a liberating force. Especially in the relationship between Prospero and Caliban, one sees the destructive force that exerts itself when a human being takes it upon himself to control another.

Shakespeare's word play in naming his characters emphasizes this idea. Montaigne exalts the cannibals for having maintained a civilization so natural and unartificial, but Shakespeare asserts that when exposed to modern civilization, the cannibals become no different than the Europeans. Yet the cannibals willingly allow themselves to be captivated and entrapped by the spell of modernity.

Grave sir, hail! To thy strong bidding task Ariel and all his quality. Cursed be I that did so Since thou dost give me pains, Let me remember thee what thou hast promised, Which is not yet performed me My liberty. Ariel: Pardon, master. On the contrast in Cesaire's version of The Tempest, Ariel is a mulatto slave while Caliban is a black one. The political analysis in Cesaire's A Tempest, is the color standard which is proposed.

It is a known fact that lighter slaves. Characters such as Othello and Caliban were considered dangerous and unnatural because they. Prospero also tells Miranda that his mistreatment and harshness toward Caliban stems from the fact that Caliban attempted to rape Miranda and Prospero wants to protect her from any harm that could come about from Caliban.

John Dee , is opposed to both his corrupt brother, usurper of his role as Duke of Milan, and to Sycorax, an evil witch and mother of the 'deformed slave' Caliban. Sycorax does not enter the action of the play, having died before it opens, but enough is made of her evil disposition and behaviour to show Prospero as a model of human virtue in comparison. This despite Prospero's own use of magic to.

Prosperon using the magic he has created, he gradually gains control of the island and turns Caliban into his slave. A group of sailors is shipwrecked on the island, one of whom falls in love with Miranda, the lovely daughter of Prospero. Throughout the story, Caliban and other servants plot to overthrow Prospero, but are caught and taken back to the custody of Prospero. Antonio took over Prospero's dukedom of Milan after "kicking them out" Act 5 and trying to end their lives.

With the help of good, Lord Gonzalo, they survive. Now, marooned on an island with a malevolent servant [Caliban] and a spirit helper [Ariel], Prospero continues the practice of magic which will 12 years later come to haunt his fellow enemies whom receives a gift of Prospero's power in the end. The "outrageous storm" Act 1 is just the beginning of a struggle. Home Page Research Caliban Essay. Caliban Essay. Page 1 of 45 - About essays. Because The Tempest is written as a play, it has limitations in providing a perspective of Caliban outside of his dialogue with other characters Continue Reading.

Caliban in Shakespeare's The Tempest Essay Words 8 Pages given particular prominence in The Tempest due to its originality and analytic potential, in particular in the presentation of one of his most renowned and disputed characters, Caliban. The diverse range of presentations of him on stage exemplifies Continue Reading. The Tempest Essay Words 4 Pages civilization collide.